This article is part of series of long exposure photography.
Defining Long Exposure Photography
As you can see there are two words in it, Long and Exposure. The word itself already told you.
Exposure, in photography basically means the amount of light that comes into a camera to create one shot. It determines by three things, shutter speed, aperture, and scene luminance.
Long, mean long. In this context, its mean the longer or period of time.
So with that, long exposure is the amount of light that comes into a camera that taken at a longer period of time by a camera.
For example. I take a photo with shutter speed 1/60 sec. It means that the time I need to take a single photo is 1/60 second. If the shutter speed is 1/1000 sec, it means the time I need is 1/1000 sec. For long exposure, the shutter speed obviously longer, 1 second or more. So if my camera’s shutter speed in 30 seconds, it means it takes 30 seconds for my camera to take a single photo.
It probably weird at first, since when we think about a photo, it doesn’t take a second for one photo. Unless we’re talking about taking a video, 30 seconds make sense.
READ MORE: Quick Understand Shutter Speed
Two basic reasons for longer exposure photography
1. Take more light into a camera
I like to say this is for a technical reason.
Like I said before, exposure is the amount of light that got into a camera and shutter speed is one determination of exposure. Basically, it means the longer the shutter speed, the longer light exposed to the camera sensor.
For example, I took a photo with shutter speed 1/20 second. But the photo is dark. To fix it I can just set my camera with longer shutter light. Let say 2 seconds. In doing so, my photograph is brighter.
2. Create Motion at movable element
This is for a creative reason.
The second reason is that of a long time it takes a photo. If you photograph something that moves in long shutter speed, it can cause blurring or some kind of motion effect that break a photo.
Obviously, you can’t take photo clearly in a long exposure. That’s why some photographer avoids using long shutter speed. But many other see this as some kind of trick that they can use, in their own creative way.
When is a Longer Exposure can be called as a Long Exposure Photography?
The problem when it comes to long exposure is how much time of shutter speed it takes for a photo to be called a long exposure photography? How much is too long?
First to answer, how much is too long? You can easily see that from your shot. If you holding your camera to take a shot and then the photo looks blurry, that means your shutter speed is too long. Usually, it’s around 1/10 second or slower. But that’s not long exposure photography. (Who does long exposure photography handheld anyway?)
So for a photo to be called a long exposure, a photo has to has a motion element which the photographer desired. It can be a short long (around 1 second) exposure or a really long exposure (can be around 30 second or longer).
See these two photos. Focus on the water and guest which one is the shorter and which one is the longer long exposure photography.
In shorter long exposure you can still see the motion of the water. But in longer long exposure, you can’t see any motion. Not because there isn’t any movement. But because the longer the shutter speed is, the more motion element being eliminated.
Many said that long exposure photography is a photography category or genre. But I don’t believe that. I think long exposure photography is a photography trick that manipulates camera’s basic principle of exposure, by using longer shutter speed, to take a photograph for whatever reason. And happen to be so popular and turned into some kind of photography theme or such.